Denning's Cabinet Making, 5^. Designing, Leland, is. Dictionaries, Technological . Dictionaryof Medical Terms, loy. 6d. Discount Tables, is. Dissections Illustrated. JOINERY, and CABINET-MAKING, explained in a simple and familiar manner We have uniformly observed, that Carpenters, Joiners, and Cabinet-Makers, are. Illustrated Cabinetmaking - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online.
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Welcome Woodworkers! This booklet is designed to provide you with the basic fundamentals needed to create your own custom cabinets for the home, shop or. Cabinetmaking covers the manufacture of free-standing and built-in furniture and .. as a DXF and PDF file on the WorldSkills template and include the correct. Fabricating cabinets. Learner Guide. This unit is also available in an e-learning format, which contains additional photos, interactive exercises and a voice-over.
CABM 2 credits An introduction to basic blueprint reading and drafting techniques applicable to the cabinetmaking profession.
CABM 3 credits Advanced Machinery This course teaches the proper set-up and use of the hollow-chisel and slot mortiser, shaper, single-end tenoner, wide-belt sander, and panel saw.
The course also provides an in-depth look at the various types of cutters and cutter-heads available for the shaper. Additional machines are added to fit project requirements and available time. An emphasis is placed on precision machining techniques and strategies for producing molding and other furniture and case components.
Other topics include door and drawer construction and styles, hardware and its applications, and an introduction to furniture styles and types. The construction of various furniture projects help solidify the subject matter. Topics include dyes and pigmented stains, a variety of sealers and top-coating materials, as well as spray finishing techniques. Students maintain daily time cards as well as job folders for their various furniture projects. Job folders contain drawings; route and cut sheets; time and cost analysis sheets; bill of materials; materials invoice; and a finishing schedule.
This course emphasizes individual planning and problem solving. Students construct their own jigs and fixtures as well as machine set-ups. All projects require an existing set of plans and the approval of the instructor before starting.
Forthis reason, thi, book is sold withOlit WillTilmjes or guarantees of any kiM, expressed or implied, aM the publ isher and the author dilC. Jnd the use of all tools before beginning any projea. At the least, we adapt published plans to suit our needs, changing the size or proportions a little, rearranging drawers, or changing the style of the doors. The plans may be excellent, but we've just got to put a personal touch on the piece.
More often than not, though, we like to go even further. Disdaining published plans altogether, we like to cook up our own. The inspiration Ior a project might be a photo in a magazine or catalog. It might be a special piece of furniture we need-bookshelves for all those woodworking books we've bought, a stand for the new television, a bed for the child who's outgrown a crib. And how often has your spouse asked you to make a table or chest like the one they've seen in a store or at a neighbor's house?
Happens to me every now and then. The inspiration is there. The desire is real. You've got the tools and materials. You've got the woodworking know-how. But the tough part-always! Even when you have a picture of what you want to build, the picture isn't likely to reveal how it's put together.
So you start off with a list of questions. What joints should you use? What's the best way to attach the top? Hang the drawers? How long should the legs be? How do you deal with wood movement?
Enter Illustrated Cabinetmaking, unarguably the most comprehensive visual guide to furniture construction and design ever published. In hundreds of drawings, illustrated Cabinetmaking takes you inside furniture and shows you classic solutions to ageold construction problems. You'll see five or six ways to hang a drawer, four ways to attach a tabletop, the best way to peg a mortise.
Everything you need to know to construct beautiful-and sound-furniture is here. The "Joints" section of the book is an illustrated encyclopedia of joints, showing how every joint imaginable-more than of them-goes together. You'll find the best joints for your applications here or you won't find them at all. In the "Subassemblies" section, you'll see how to use those joints to assemble tabletops, doors, drawers, and feet.
You'll see how drawers are installed in cases and in tables. You'll see how complex moldings are built up and installed. And in the paramount section, 'Furniture," you'll discover how to combine joints and subassemblies in constructing the final product: In this exhaustive section, you'll see more than exploded drawings, showing every type of furnitureimaginable-gateleg table, huntboard, roll top desk, dresser, bureau, trestle table, high-post bed, step-back cupboard, bookshelves, kitchen cabinets, tall-case clock, and over 90 more.
Most of these exploded drawings are supplemented by one or two close-up details that home in on particularly complex or tricky parts of the construction, making it all the more clear. Every construction drawing is clearly labelled. Cross-references direct you to other furniture pieces or other sections that depict alternative joints or alternative approaches to constructing a subassembly.
With each furniture archetype presented, you'll see a drawing of the assembled piece With its overall dimensions called out.. You'll find tips on altering the appearance of the piece.. And for all but a couple, there's even a short list of good published plans for similar pieces.
In addition, the book shows rule-of-thumb design standards.
The Joiner and Cabinet Maker
For example, How high should a dining table be? And how much space should each person sitting at it have? How deep are kitchen cabinets? Are there standards for setting up a desk for a computer? It's all here. So with all this visual information and an easy-to-read. There are good reasons to be familiar with this nomenclature. It'll be easier to follow plans. You may find it easier to conceptualize a piece and how its components work together.
Step 1: Prepare the Case Panels
And by getting to know all those parts, you'll become Fixed: In other words, learning the terms can help you develop a sharper eye for identifying styles and appreciating good design and craftsmanship. If there is any truth to the saying that God is in the details, then it pays to get on a first-name basis with the details. GatelegTable Breadboard end Tavern. Recycling retro styles is nothing new. The Victorians revived classical, Gothic, renaissance, and colonial themes in a period of a few decades.
Old styles continue to fascinate us. You may have noticed that the terms for styles are somewhat tidier than history itself.
These names were rarely in use when the furniture was produced, but were coined years later. A result is that there may be a couple of terms for the same style. Baroque and Queen Anne have been used interchangeably.
So have rococo and Chippendale. Adding to the confuston, periods of style often overlap; in fact, a given piece of furniture may itself be a hybrid of two periods.. Finally, it's impossible to nail down the birth-and-death dates for any style.
Trends typically hatched abroad, migrated to our urban areas, then wended their way into the countryside. The names of styles may be confusing, but they do serve as reminders of the historic lineage of the furniture we design and build.. And within each style, we can learn to look for regional variations that are the pulse of the long-departed woodworkers themselves.
The furniture is sturdy but heavy, made of solid wood with mortise-andtenon joinery. Characteristic features include: The furniture tends to be dark, using either walnut or lighter woods under an ebony finish.
Characteristically, it has straight, angular lines and multiple turnings. Typical are: Table I '" J If. This style introduced the elegant, S-shaped cabriole leg to America, and indeed the cabriole leg is a prime style marker of the furniture.
Makers of Queen Anne furniture favored walnut. It overlaps both the earlier William and Mary and later Chippendale styles. Queen Anne style markers include: I' II '''t1' I I 't:: I' "t!
Carving and fretwork decorated legs, aprons, and stretchers. The straight line was revived as a design element, and tables often had straight, untapered legs.
Mahogany was commonly used in this period, while favored domestic woods included walnut, maple, and cherry. Empire is the late phase of the style. Federal was a reaction to the rococo flourishes of earlier furniture.
Curiously, the names of two English designers, Sheraton and Hepplewhlte, are inextricably linked to Federal furniture. Each published a book of neoclasslcal designs that became popular in the United States. Based on their books, it is difficult to distinguish the designs of one from the other. Although Europe and England embraced neoclassicism as passionately as America did, Federal has been called America's first homegrown style because its interpretation of neoclassicism is purely American.
Characteristics of the style include: Federal S. Still inspired by classical Greek and Roman motifs, Empire furniture became heavier and far more ornate, with flamboyant decorative elements. Pieces are typically of mahogany, rosewood, and other exotic veneers. Common design motifs include: As a type, this furniture is often regarded as being simplified-albeit uninhibited-versions of the rigidly styled forms produced in the cities.
Pine, poplar, cherry, walnut, and other native species are among the woods most often used. They frequently are painted to make up for their lack of fancy grain. Typically, the forms display: Stolid construction harks back to medieval times, as does colorful folk painting.
This furni ture typically has: The woods most commonly used are pine and maple, and these blond species are often painted. In the main, Shaker furnishings have: Gothic Revival It's not known for certain Just how this fascination with things medieval came about, but an interest in reading romantic Gothic novels may have been an inspiration-no doubt the only furniture style to have sprung from fiction.
The heavy, brooding forms are constructed of rosewood, walnut, and dark-finished oak.. The richness of the design is underscored by the use of rosewood veneer, walnut.
Renaissance Revival A high. It was often built in walnut and ornamented with carved doodads and intriguing inlays, but lighter woods also found favor. They urged an end to ornamentation and a return to handcrafted furniture. Eastlake Charles Locke Eastlake, one such British reformer, pared away the clutter of the preceding revival styles and published designs of straightforward oaken furniture with simple incised decoration.
American examples evolved into elaborate offshoots. Characteristics Include: As an antidote to the industrial revolution, English designers John Ruskin and William Morris preached the value of restoring handicraft to making furniture. In America, the movement sparked the mission style, taking its name from the furniture of Franciscan missions in California.
Oak was most frequently used. The grain may be emphasized with quarter-sawn stock and a fumed finish. Other characteristics Include: This presents a challenge to the woodworker, whose job it is to compose a sturdy, weight-bearing object. So, woodworking involves a repertoire of techniques for constraining wood while allowing some margin for its waywardness.
Wood begins life wet, On the stump, it is saturated with moisture. Fresh-cut "green" lumber oozes sap, and the bulk of this water must go before the wood is suitable for furniture making. There is a long tradition of using air-dried lumber, which is allowed to slowly give up its moisture to the atmosphere. But standard practice today is to dry it in a special kiln, using heat to drive down the wood's moisture level.
Construction lumber may be ready to nail when reduced to 10 to 20 percent moisture. Of course, a board's moisture content doesn't stay put after drying. When the humidity changes, wood moves to a new EMC, in balance with the new average humidity. Moreover, a board doesn't always keep its tidy shape as it dries initially, or as it expands and contracts with the passage of time.
Woodworkers know that the movement is primarily across the width of a board rather than along the board's length; that hardly changes at all. They also know that boards are prone to cup, bow, twist, diamond, and kink as their moisture content comes and goes. Many of these changes are a function of what part of the tree it came from and how it was sawn.
The drawing How Wood Moves sums up most of this. But there's more. Different species of wood have different rates of shrinkage. Some, like mahogany a favorite of cabinetmakers for centuries , teak, redwood, catalpa, and northern white cedar, have reputations for stability; their dimensions change very little with humidity change.
Others, like certain oaks, change rather dramatically and thus have reputations for being troublesome.. Shrinks slightly in width and thickness; bark edge of board shrinks more in thickness than heartwood edge. Button screwed [Q tabletop slides in groove, allowing top to move.
In summer, when it is humid for a protracted period, the tabletop will be 38 inches wide. That's a lot of movement! The cabinetmaker has to attach that tabletop to a leg-and-apron frame in a way that will accommodate that movement One way is shown in the drawing Solid Panel Construction; others, in "Tabletops" on page 7B. But wood movement is a problem with almost any solid-wood panel-a lid, a door, a case side.
It is going to move, so you've got to accommodate that movement. Very early on, cabinetmakers came to grips with the issue of wood movement. A case side can't be attached the way a tabletop can, so what to do? This approach developed early on. It is so effective that it is still widely used. The wide panel, which will move the most, is set into a frame in such a way that it can expand and contract Wood movement Screws set in slots allow lid to move.
Solid Panel Con. Because it is made up of narrow members, the frame doesn't change much. The frame's length Chest length and width are stable. Front, ends, and back expand and contract vertically. Case joints not stressed by wood movement Tongue-and-groove joints "absorb" movement of individual bottom boards.
Chest Construction is set by the stile length. And because normal wood doesn't move longitudinally, the frame's length won't change. Where the change in dimension comes is across the frame: The stiles will expand and contract. But the stiles are only, say, 2 inches wide, so even that red oak will move only about inch across each stile. Maxed out, that inch-wide frame-and-panel assembly will expand only 1!
And set in grooves in the frame, it can do that without damaging the frame. Chest construction: Another approach to dealing with wood movement involves getting the grain of the parts uniformly oriented.
A six-board chest, for example, properly has the grain of the front, sides or ends , and back extending horizontally. These parts are joined end-grain to end-grain. As the wood expands, the chest gets a little taller.
But the joinery is unaffected. When a bottom is attached, the cabinetmaker has to deal only with the movement of the bottom itself, not the chest. Stand a chest on end, and it becomes a case, Having all the boards uniformly oriented ensures that the parts will move in tandem.
The problems arise when cross-grain elements like drawer runners and moldings are introduced. Now the parts are moving in two different, conflicting directions. The tensions that result can crack case sides and pop moldings off Many solutions to these cross-grain can" struction problems have been developed, Just one is shown in the drawing Case Construction, Others are shown in "Casework" page 84 and "Moldings" page With a chest of drawers, the cabinetmaker has an additional challenge.
Because a drawer is like a chest, it will get taller in high humidity. But because of how the case is constructed. The size of the opening must account for this wood movement, or the drawer will stick. Plywood is composed of thin plies of real wood.
MDF is made up of wood particles that are too small and scattered to influence the board, You wouldn't want to feature sheets of these materials on the face of a traditional piece, of course, but they serve. Make sure to apply finish over all surfaces of a piece, and not just to visible areas; uneven moisture exchange is an invitation to warping.
A project built of kiln-dried wood and finished on all sides will rarely succumb to extreme wood movement. This is because the finish allows the wood to absorb only a limited quantity of water before seasonal changes cause it to lose water again, thus limiting the overall range of movement.
Runner, cut slightly short and captured between rails. Front rail: The mammoth trees that yielded such boards are long gone. Nowadays, trees are slender and yield mostly narrow boards. To create a 2-foot-wide panel, several narrow boards must be assembled edge-to-edge with edge joints.
To build a six-board chest today might require as many as two dozen boards. A reasonable question: Will that glued-up panel be as strong as a single board? The answer is yes. Glued edge joints are very strong. The long grain in the surfaces that are being joined glues well. And because you are gluing one long-grain surface to another long-grain surface, you aren't going to introduce a conflict due to wood movement.
The edge-to-edge joint is only one of the three common types of edge joints. The other two are edge-to-face and face-to-face. Edqe-to-face is a joint in which the narrow surface, or edge, of one board is joined to the broad surface, or face, of another.
Sometimes collectively called corner edge joints, they form the vertical corners of cabinets and columns. Edge-to-Edge joint Face-to-face is a joint in which the face of one board is joined to the face of another. When you need a leg blank that is 3 inches square in section, you may have to glue up this blank from thinner boards.
You can do the same thing when you need a massive section, wide and thick, as for a sturdy bench seat, a beam, or the top of a workbench. Edge-to-Face joint Gluing up a leg blank Gluing up a bench top Face-to-Face joint --BUTT JOINTS In edge joinery, where the joints are long-grain to long-grain, the simple butt joint is most effective, especially when the stock is well machined and you are using a modern glue, Splines, biscuits, or dowels don't make the joint stronger.
Edge-to-Edge Despite the strength of the glued edge-to-edge joint, many woodworkers also use biscuits, splines. Machining the stock for them is extra work that usually doesn't pay. For a complex assembly, however, or with wood that's mildly bowed, these alignment devices can help a great deal.
Biscuits come in three standard sizes, Always use the largest that will fit. One of the best edge-joint alignment tools is the spline.. Grooves either through or stopped are cut in the adjoining edges.
A strip of plywood or hardboard is fit into the grooves as you glue up the joint, making alignment easier. Fit the spline carefully so it won't push the boards apart if the wood shrinks.. Dowels are not a good alignment option. It is extremely difficult. Even if you succeed in this, dowels make a good edge joint bad by introducing a cross-grain element to a long-grain joint. If the wood shrinks, the dowels can push the joint apart.
Butterfly key: A traditional fastener used for edge-to-edge joints in Japan is the butterfly key. It is often used in contemporary furniture as a decorative element, as well as a functLonal one. The key can be used to join boards without glue, especially where they might later need to be disassembled. Boards joined edge to edge Butterfly key Key creates joint between boards with irregular edges. Buuerfly Key Doweled Edge-to-Edge Joint Edge-to-Face The vertical corners of cabinets and furniture present a problem in combining strength and ease of assembly.
Since the mating surfaces of the two parts consist entirely of long grain. No additional reinforcement is necessary. There is no cross-grain instability to worry about, since the parts are parallel to one another. Glued edge-to-face joint: The easiest corner joint to cut is a simple butted corner joint. The parts will glue up into a very strong assembly. The appearance can suffer if there's a contrast between the grain of the two parts. The seam between the two parts can be concealed by cutting a V-groove on it.
F'asteners, can be used in an edge-to-face joint instead of, or in addition to, glue, While, the: Keeping a b '. Useone every 8 inc hes t 0". Another joint alignment approach is the full-length spline.
The mating parts are grooved either through or stopped for a plywood or hardboard spline. In furniture. It Is found in case backs, tabletops, and other panels.
It's the joint tradltlonally used in breadboard constructions. It is probably most common, in applications where it is not glued. It provides ,a mechanical lock, between board.: If the boards are less, than 3 inches wide, and therefore unlikely to expand and contract very Screw, coun and cOln,ce,all'''': The bead or V-groove commonly seen on the face of a tongue-and-groove joint is camouflage. It's there to disguise an opening that varies in width due to the seasonal expansion and shrinkage of the boards.
When a second board is set into the cut, it creates a rabbet joint. This is a right-angle joint, used in joining edge grain to face grain. There are a few variations. Single-rabbet joint: This is a joint formed when only one of the mating parts is rabbeted. Typically, the rabbet is proportioned so its width matches the thickness of the mating board.
This proportion yields a flush fit. A useful variation puts a chamfer on the edge of the rabbet. The chamfer separates the face grain of one part from the edge grain of the other.
Since the chamfer is at an angle to both faces, it will look good regardless of grain pattern differences. A secondary variation produces a very attractive reversed corner detail, which can be emphasized with paint or a decorative molding Chamfered Single-Rabbet Joint and then glued in place after assembly..
To produce this reveal, the rabbet's width is cut slightly less than the mating part's thickness. A bit of an interlock can be created by rabbeting both of the mating boards. Rabbet-and-groove joint: This is a good rack-resistant joint that assembles easily because both boards are positively located. The groove doesn't have to be big; often it's a single saw kerf, no deeper than one-third the board's thickness. Into it fits an offset tongue created on the mating board by the rabbet.
It is formed by cutting identical rabbets cut into opposite faces of the adjoining boards. The rabbeted edges are then overlapped, preventing visible gaps from opening between the boards. The joint can't keep the surfaces of the boards flush, however. This difference makes the tongue-and-groove clearly superior. Nevertheless, the shiplap is adequate if the wood is stable and the design allows you to fasten the parts at frequent intervals, as you can when attaching a back to every shelf of a bookcase or hutch.
This joint's advantage is that it can be cut much more quickly than a tongue-and-groove and with simpler tools.. There's a barely discernible seam, and right there, the wood changes direction sharply. You don't see any end grain. The worst thing about the joint is that it is vexing to assemble.
Because of the angles involved, a mitered corner always wants to slide out of line when you apply clamping pressure to it. Glued edge miter: As with all of the other long-grain edge joints, glue alone is enough to hold an edge miter together.
Furniture and Cabinet Making.pdf
The advantage of the miter is that it has more gluing surface than a butt joint. Nevertheless, glue blocks, either a continuous strip or short blocks spaced along the joint, can be used to reinforce the miter. A plus here is that the grain of the glue blocks Glued Edge Miler parallels that of the joining boards, so wood movement isn't a problem.
Fastened edge miter: The need for clamping a glued joint can be eliminated if fasteners are used.
Position nails or screws as shown. Biscuited edge miter: Biscuits in a miter joint prevent the beveled edges from slipping sideways as you apply clamping pressure. How well they function depends on how snugly the biscuits fit and how closely you space them.
You have no control over the fit of manufactured biscuits, but you can improve things by spacing them closely, say every 3 or 4 inches. Splined edge miter: Adding a longgrain, solid-wood spline is a good way to keep an edge miter joint aligned as you're gluing up. Keep in mind that the spline doesn't make the joint appreciably stronger; in fact, if the spline isn't placed properly, it may actually weaken the joint.
Make the width of the groove equal to the thickness of the saw blade, locate it as shown in the drawing, and don't go deeper than a third of the way through the wood. Router bit manufacturers have come up with a variety of special bits for edge joinery.
All the bits are for router table use only, and each requires but a single setup. The edge configurations they produce offer all the characteristics of the perfect joint. The simplest of the bits produces a sort of tongue-and-rabbet profile. The idea is that one board in a joint is routed face up, the other face down..
If the boards are flat and the height of the bit is just right, the two boards will fall together with their faces flush.
Because of the interlock, the boards can't shift up or down. It's important to mark the boards clearly so you orient each one correctly when making the cuts.
This Joint is a postttvenegative interlock, in which tapered projections the fingers on one piece fit into tapered grooves in the other, The profile expands the glue area threefold, You can use it to join boards edge-to-edge and, with some trepidation, end-to-end, The cutting sequence is the same as with the previously described specialty bits, You rout one workpiece's edge with the stock face up and the other piece with the stock face down.
When the bit height is correct, the two pieces should slide together with their faces perfectJy flush. Lock miter joint: This joint can be used for edge-to-edge joinery as well as edge-toface. Both joints are easy to assemble, and in either arrangment, the routed joint's glue area is significantly larger than that of a plain glue joint.
One setup suffices for cuts on both pieces to be joined. To use the joint in anedge-to-face arrangement, one panel is machined while it's flat on the router table, the other while on edge against the fence. To produce an edge-to-edge arrangement, one board is machined with its face down, the other with its face up.
Fortunately, with case joints, strength usually is not the main issue: Case furniture 27 typically stands, unmoving, supporting itself and whatever is stored inside. The common corner joints shown below have more than enough interlocking wood and gluing area to resist these static loads.
While racking stress can be a problem in large cases, interior dividers add stiffness, as does a frame-andpanel or plywood back. They present a poor situation for gluing, and they lack any sort of mechanical interlock.
To make a sturdy butt joint, you need to reinforce the Joint. Glued butt joint: The butt joint gets its name from the fact that one board is butted against the other..
In-case joinery, this places the end grain of one board against the face grain of its mate. Because end graln glues poorly to face grain, this is not a sturdy joint. Butt joint with glue block: Glue blocks are triangular or square pieces of wood used to strengthen and support two adjoining surfaces.
They can be continuous or intermittent. Incase joinery, glue blocks generally are a cross-grain construction. A faster, and less problematic, way to reinforce a butt joint is with fasteners..
For additional strength, drive nails at an angle into the wood as shown. Doweled butt: Dowels, used like nails, can reinforce a butt Joint. While this joint is often shown with blind dowels, constructing it that way is extremely difficult.
Instead, assemble the joint, then drill holes and drive dowels. You'll have a strong joint, and the exposed dowel ends can be a decorative element. Dowels angled to strengthen joint Doweled Bun Biscuited butt: A popular way to reinforce a butt joint is with biscuits.
Matching slots are cut into the end grain of one piece and into the face grain of the other. Where a horizontal board tops an upright, the biscuits should be offset. It has some major advantages. The dovetail allows expansion and contraction of the wood without losing any of its structural integrity.
The dovetail consists of "pins," which fit into triangular sockets between the "tails. Likewise, the tail at the end of the joint is called a half-tail. The strength of the joint derives from two things: The more pins and tails, the stronger the joint will be. The traditional dovetail joint has broad tails and small pins, with the tails cut in the horizontal piece of wood.
Layouts, however, vary widely, Two design factors must be considered in laying out the joint: Dovetail spacing: There's no need to space. On a wide joint, they often have close pins and small tails near the edges, which has the effect of putting three or four glue lines in the first inch of Width, helping to resist cupping.
Dovetail angle: The slope, or gradient, should not vary. If your dovetails have too little slope, they surrender part of their mechanical strength and begin to look like the fingers of a box joint. If they have too much slope, the Varied Spacing of Pins and Tails short grain at the tips of the tails will be weakened and may break off during assembly. Through dovetails: This is the basic dovetail joint.
Both pieces go completely through each other, and the joint is visible on the outside surfaces of both pieces. Decorative dovetails: A standard through dovetail is attractive enough, but try varying the size, spacing. Cogged Dovetails Decorative Dovetails Th. Viewed from the edge, an assembled through dovetail looks like a butt joint.
If the appearance of a mitered corner is your desire, it can be fulfilled. Normally, a dovetail joint begins and ends with a half-pin, but here you should start and end with a half-tail. Though it is THE traditional means of joining drawer fronts to sides, the half-blind dovetail bears the stigma of being the machine-cut dovetail. Unlike a through dovetail, which is visible from both the front and Side, the half-blind dovetail can be seen only from the side.
Full-blind dovetails: Here is the dovetail joint that looks like a miter joint. It is used where the strength of dovetails-but not their appearance-is needed. When the joint is closed, both pins and tails are concealed. The joint is sometimes called the secret mitered dovetail. This dovetail joint could easily be taken for a rabbet joint.
The pinboard is worked as if for a half-blind dovetail. Like the pins, the tails are formed using stopped cuts.. Thus both pins and tails are concealed within the joint. Sliding dovetail: This joint is a hybrid of the dado and the dovetail.
One of the mating pieces has a groove plowed in it, the other has a tongue formed on it; the tongue fits in the groove. Because both the groove walls and the tongue sides are angled like dovetail slots or JJL [fj Stopped Through Sliding Dovetail pins, the joint has to be assembled by sliding the tongue into the groove. One advantage of the joint is its mechanical strength. Even without glue, the mating pieces will stay linked together. Another advantage is that the joint allows the parts to move without coming apart.
A good example of this is a tabletop's breadboard end, as shown in Sliding Haff-Dovetail. Tapered sliding dovetail: The tapered sliding dovetail-if cut with precision-allows especially easy assembly but closes extremely tightly. Both the pin and the groove are tapered. The narrow end of the pin enters the Wide end of the groove and slides effortlessly through the groove.
But as the groove closes down on the pin, the joint gets tight. Sliding balf-dovetail: This joint has an angled side and a straight side, as shown in the drawing, and can be made in both uniform and tapered versions.
Sliding Half-Dovetail , It doesn't benefit from the wedging effect of dovetails, but It nevertheless does have good mechanical strength. Its many fingers create a great deal of long grain-to-long grain gluing area the sort of glue area that yields the strongest bonding.. Thus, it's hard to beat it for strength.
Typically, each of the joining pieces has an alternating pattern of equally sized fingers and slots. The fingers of one piece line. Usually, the width of the fingers is equal to stock thickness. Thin fingers, with a width less than the stock thickness, are more work to cut, but they yield a stronger joint. The box joint's one major limitation is its checkerboard appearance. Decorative bo. A box joint with equally spaced fingers has a certain spare elegance.
You can soften the joint's severity by varying proportions and spacing.. The joint is much more difficult to cut, of course. Angled bo. With the proper setup, box joints can be cut for parts that join at something other than a degree angle.. Like the half-blind dovetail. It is a reasonable alternative to the halfblind dovetail. In its most basic form.
A significant problem is that seasonal expansion and contraction of wood opens up even the best-fttting miter joint. Few stay tight over their lifetime. End miter: This joint is weak for two reasons: The components don't interlock, and the glue surfaces are essentially end grain. A simple way to strengthen the joint is with nails. Driving nails into both sides of a miter locks it together. Keep the nails toward the inside of thejoint, and drill pilot holes for them to avoid splitting the stock.
Diagonallv'splined end miter: Though not as strong as the dovetail or the box joint, the splined miter is a workable case joint. The spline can run either the full length of the joint or only partway. The latter is called a biind-splined miter. The spline should be placed close to the inner corner. This way. End Miler Biscuited end miter: The biscuit is an alternative to the. Unlike the through slots for splines. Thus, they can be anywhere between the middle and the inside edge..
Box-jointed loose tenons: This joint offers the strength of a box joint and the clean appearance of a miter joint; but while its combination of features is appealing, the joint is neither quick nor easy to make. The boards or panels to be joined must be mitered, then Offset through slot so tip of miter not Grain of spline parallels that of mating parts. Pairs of loose tenons must be joined with box joints. Then the two case parts must be assembled with the box-jointed tenons.
End miter with spline keys: This joint is made by cutting slots through the outside corner of a miter joint, then gluing splines into the slots and trimming them flush. The joint has great strength, and it looks good, too.
At first glance it may look like a box joint, and it is often called a mock box joint. End miter with dovetail keys: If you like the look of the dovetail shape, these mock dovetails will give it to you on two surfaces.
If desired, the keys can be a contrasting wood. End miter with feather keys: A feather key is a thin slip of wood glued into a saw kerf. The spacing of the keys impacts the joint's strength and appearance. The more you use, the stronger the joint. The cuts can be straight or angled, the keys matching or contrasting. They are strong and attractive joints for using to join mid-section structural elements like shelves and partitions to the sides, top, and bottom of the case.
The joints can be through or blind. If they are through, it is customary to secure them with hardwood wedges driven into saw cuts made across the end grain of each tenon. In contrast to any of the dado joints, multiple tenon joints provide plenty of long-grain gluing surface on both faces of each tenon. This means that the joint can be used where the shelf must pull in the case sides, They also eliminate the need to make continuous cuts through the face of sheet materials, cuts that can seriously erode the strength of the material.
A row of evenly spaced, small mortises and tenons makes an excellent joint. The tenons should be the full thickness of the stock. The wider the piece, the more mortises and tenons you should use. Twin"tenon case joint: An interesting variation is a joint that uses pairs of mortises and tenons. A pair of tenons is located near the edges of the shelf or partition, often with a web or tongue between the tenon pairs. The tongue is housed in a shallow dado cut between the mortises.
This construction helps the case resist racking and the shelf resist the downward loading. Through mortises Twin-Teno. They are used primarily for attaching drawer fronts to sides. Of the two lock joints shown, the "simple" Joint is more common, and easier to cut, than the "complex" joint. Precision cuts are required to produce either version. The lock miter is excellent because it combines the appearance of a miter corner with the strength of a dado. Because of its built-in locking action, it needs to be clamped only in one direction.
Routed drawer lock joint: This joint is cut with a special router hit or shaper knives. Only one setup is needed. The first piece is run through standing on end against the fence, the second flat on the table.
One board has the dado, the other board fits into the dado. A dado cut in a case side provides a ledge to support the weight of a shelf and everything loaded on it. The dado also prevents the shelf from cupping. But it does nothing to. Only glue or fasteners can do that. Because all of the gluing surfaces involve end grain, the glue strength is limited.
The dado does not have to be deep to create a strong through dado joint. Through dado: When the dado extends from edge to edge, it is a through dado. The most common objection to the through dado Joint is that it shows on the front edges of side panels.
But a face frame or trim covering the case edges conceals the joint. Stopped dado: A dado or groove doesn't have to be through. It can begin at one edge and end before it reaches the other stopped , or it can begin and end shy of either edge blind. Through Dado To make this joint, the corner s of the mating board must be notched, and the projecting edge should be just a tad shorter than the dado.
You want a little play from end to end, so you can be. This joint is perfect for MDF and particleboard, which have no grain and thus none of its strength. The spline should penetrate about one-third of the side's thickness, and about twice that distance into the horizontal piece. Too deep a cut into the side will weaken it, Too shallow a cut into the horizontal piece will not add enough strength. A spline located below center can support a heavier load without breaking. As its name says, this joint combines a dado and a rabbet.
The rabbet cut forms a tongue or barefaced tenon that fits into the dado. In terms of theoretical gluing strength, this joint is all end grain to long grain which isn't good ; but in practice, it will glue well if the tongue is properly fitted to the dado. To do this, you match the thickness of the tongue to the dado. The orientation of the joint is important. Otherwise, you risk the board's splitting below the tongue. Beyond the dado-andrabbet is the tongue-and-dado, which can be made in both through and stopped forms.
The latter hides shrinkage and gaps. An advantage of this joint over a dado-and-rabbet is the increased stability that comes with the extra shoulder. Tongue-and-Dado t. The most common use in casework ts in joining the back to the case. But it is also used to join the top and bottom to the sides, and to join the sides of a drawer to the front. There are only end grain-to-long grain gluing surfaces in the rabbet joints. Typically, rabbet Joints are joined together with fasteners instead of with glue.
The depth of the rabbet for this joint should be one-half to two-thirds its width. The deeper the rabbet, the lessend grain that will be exposed in the assembled joint.
When assembled, the rabbet conceals the end grain of the mating board. Double-rabbet joint: In this joint, both of the mating pieces are rabbeted. The rabbets don't have to be the same, but typically they are. Mitered rabbet: This joint, sometimes called the "miter-with-rabbet" or the "offset miter," combines elements of both rabbet joints and miter joints.
Assembled, it looks like a miter joint; but structurally, the rabbet adds resistance to shear and racking stresses. The joint Is made by rabbeting both parts. One rabbet is twice the width of the other.
Then the tips of the rabbets are mitered. Mitered rabbet with dowels: One way to reinforce the mitered rabbet joint without changing Us outward appearance is with hidden dowels. Assuming the holes for the dowels are accurately aligned across the joint, assembly is simple. Achieving that alignment is easier said than done. Double-Rabbet Joint Dovetailed rabbet: An alternative to more familiar case corner joints such as rabbets and lock miters is this corner joint.
It is more resistant to racking than a conventional rabbet joint Reinforc. Instead of joining a case side directly to the top, for example, the two parts are joined to a corner block.Details how to approach the complex job of designing and making traditional or contemporary built-in cabinets.
The edge-to-edge joint is only one of the three common types of edge joints. An alternative to nailing or doweling a miter joint is to use biscuits to secure the. At the begining, design office is given the cabinet edge is round, it needs a thick wall, so, it is made engineering project set, space layout of decks and some with two panels and wooden posts in the cavity ''Figure 8''. No doubt that 4. I used overlay door hinges.