Urdu Letters, Names and Transliteration initial: a, i, u medial/final: 3 a a (only b initial) 9. b s p 1. t f t. S. V dal dal. Zal re re. Ze. Zhe. Sln. Shin h V SVad kh V Zvad . urdu Alphabet - Free download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online for free. learn urdu. highly complex writing system, is widely used for the. Urdu orthography. The shape assumed by a character in a word is context sensitive. The Urdu alphabet.
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𝗣𝗗𝗙 | On Jan 1, , Naushin Naqvi and others published Study of Urdu Alphabet And Character For Forensic Examination. Urdu (in Arabic script). Letters of the Alphabet. Initial. Medial. Final. Alone. Romanization. ا. ﺎ. ﺎ. ا omit (see Note 1). ﺑ. ﺒ. ﺐ. ﺏ b. ﭘ. ﭙ. ﭗ. ﭖ p. This book in your hand is an easy way to learn Urdu through English. . Phonentically Transleterated. Sounds of Urdu Alphabets. Urdu. Alphabet. English .
Vowel chart This is a list of Urdu vowels found in the initial, medial, and final positions. Short vowels Short vowels "a", "i", "u" are represented by marks above and below a consonant. Alif Alif is the first letter of the Urdu alphabet, and it is used exclusively as a vowel.
At the beginning of a word, alif can be used to represent any of the short vowels, e. Also at the beginning, an alif followed by either w'o or ye represents a long vowel sound.
However, w'o or ye alone at the beginning represents a consonant. Alif also has a variant, call alif madd. It is used to represent a long "" at the beginning of a word, e.
At the middle or end of a word, long is represented simply by alif , e. W'o W'o is used to render the vowels "", "o" and "au" [u], [o], and  respectively , and it is also used to render the labiodental approximant . Ye Ye is divided into two variants: Cho ye is written in all forms exactly as in Persian. It is used for the long vowel "" and the consonant "y". Ba ye is distinguished in writing from cho ye only when it comes at the end of a word. Use of specific letters Retroflex letters Retroflex consonants were not present in the Persian alphabet, and therefore had to be created specifically for Urdu.
This was accomplished by placing a superscript to'e above the corresponding dental consonants. Letter Name IPA. Do chashm he The letter do chashm he is used in native Hindustn words, for aspiration of certain consonants.
The aspirated consonants are sometimes classified as separate letters, although it takes two characters to represent them.
Transcription IPA bh [b]. There are significant advantages to this transcription system: It provides a standard which is based on the original works undertaken at the Fort William College, Calcutta, India established , under John Borthwick Gilchrist , which has become the de facto standard for Hindustani during the late There is a one-to-one representation for each of the original Urdu and Hindi characters.
Vowel sounds are written rather than being assumed as they are in the Urdu alphabet.
Liberate UrduHindustani language to be written and communicated utilizing all of the available standards and free us from Unicode conversion drudgery.
Urdu Hindustani with this character set fully utilizes paper and electronic print media. Countries where Urdu language has been spoken: References 1.
Also at the beginning, an alif followed by either w'o or ye represents a long vowel sound. However, w'o or ye alone at the beginning represents a consonant. Alif also has a variant, call alif madd. It is used to represent a long "" at the beginning of a word, e.
At the middle or end of a word, long is represented simply by alif , e.
Ye Ye is divided into two variants: cho ye and bai ye. The standard Urdu script is a modified version of the Perso-Arabic script and has its origins in 13th century Iran. It is closely related to the development of the Nastaliq style of Perso-Arabic script. Urdu script in its extended form is known as Shahmukhi script and is used for writing other Indo-Aryan languages of North Indian subcontinent like Punjabi and Saraiki as well.
Despite the invention of the Urdu typewriter in , Urdu newspapers continued to publish prints of handwritten scripts by calligraphers known as katibs or khush-navees until the late s. There are efforts under way to develop more sophisticated and user-friendly Urdu support on computers and the internet.
Nowadays, nearly all Urdu newspapers, magazines, journals, and periodicals are composed on computers with Urdu software programs. Urdu and Hindi , an official federal language of India , are different registers of the same language, and thus they are mutually intelligible and can use each other's script to write the other's language.
Usage of script generally signifies the user's faith: In addition to Pakistan, the Urdu script is official in five states of India with a substantial percentage of Hindustani-speaking Muslims: After the Mughal conquest , Nasta'liq became the preferred writing style for Urdu.
It is the dominant style in Pakistan , and many Urdu writers elsewhere in the world use it. The Urdu script is an abjad script derived from Perso-Arabic script , which is itself a derivative of the Arabic script.
The Urdu alphabet was standardized in by the National Language Authority , which is responsible for standardizing Urdu in Pakistan. According to the National Language Authority, Urdu has 58 letters of which 39 are basic letters while 18 are digraphs to represent aspirated consonants made by attaching basic consonant letters with a variant of He called do chashmi he.
As an abjad, the Urdu script only shows consonants and long vowels; short vowels can only be inferred by the consonants' relation to each other.
While this type of script is convenient in Semitic languages like Arabic and Hebrew , whose consonant roots are the key of the sentence, Urdu is an Indo-European language , which does not have the same luxury, hence necessitating more memorization. Urdu has more letters added to the Persian base to represent sounds not present in Persian, which already has additional letters added to the Arabic base itself to represent sounds not present in Arabic.
The letters added include: This letter is mainly used as part of the multitude of digraphs, detailed below. The digraphs of aspirated consonants are as follows. The Urdu language has 10 vowels and 10 nasalized vowels. Each vowel has four forms depending on its position: Like in its parent Arabic alphabet , Urdu vowels are represented using a combination of digraphs and diacritics. Alif , Waw , Ye , He and their variants are used to represent vowels.
Urdu doesn't have standalone vowel letters. Short vowels a , i , u are represented by optional diacritics zabar , zer , pesh upon the preceding consonant or a placeholder consonant alif , ain , or hamzah if the syllable begins with the vowel, and long vowels by consonants alif , ain , ye , and wa'o as matres lectionis, with disambiguating diacritics, some of which are optional zabar , zer , pesh , whereas some are not madd , hamzah.
Urdu does not have short vowels at the end of words. This is a table of Urdu vowels:. Alif is the first letter of the Urdu alphabet, and it is used exclusively as a vowel.
Alphabet-Equivalents.pdf - Urdu Alphabets b t s c x Kh D r...
At the beginning of a word, alif can be used to represent any of the short vowels: Ye is divided into two variants: He is divided into two variants: It can only be used as in Persian. Ayn in its initial and final position is silent in pronunciation and is replaced by the sound of its preceding or succeeding vowel.Simon Devram.
Documents Similar To urdu Alphabet. Nasta'liq is more cursive and flowing than its Naskh counterpart, but harder to read. Here are a few mnemonic devices to memorize the Urdu alphabet so you can speed up learning how to write in Urdu. I also love the beautifully rational qualities of the Devanagari script. Vowel sounds are written rather than being assumed as they are in the Urdu alphabet. I'm glad to have this small chance to celebrate the exceptional and wonderful features of Devanagari.
Short vowels a , i , u are represented by optional diacritics zabar , zer , pesh upon the preceding consonant or a placeholder consonant alif , ain , or hamzah if the syllable begins with the vowel, and long vowels by consonants alif , ain , ye , and wa'o as matres lectionis, with disambiguating diacritics, some of which are optional zabar , zer , pesh , whereas some are not madd , hamzah.