SECOND EDITION Social Psychology and Human Nature Roy F. Baumeister Florida State University Brad J. Bushman University of Michigan VU University. Social Psychology and Human Nature Roy F. Baumeister, Brad J. Bushman Publisher: Michele Sordi Senior Development Editor: Jeremy Judson Managing. Request PDF on ResearchGate | On Jan 1, , Roy F. Baumeister and others published Social Psychology and Human Nature.
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Trove: Find and get Australian resources. Books, images, historic newspapers, maps, archives and more. [PDF]EPUB Social Psychology and Human Nature, Comprehensive Edition Ebook PDF, EPUB, site By Roy F. Baumeister Social. Social psychology and human nature by Roy F Baumeister · Social psychology and human nature. by Roy F Baumeister; Brad J Bushman. Print book. English.
This refers to all forces that lead people to like each other, establish relationships, and in some cases fall in love. Several general principles of attraction have been discovered by social psychologists, but many still continue to experiment and do research to find out more. One of the most important factors in interpersonal attraction is how similar two particular people are. The more similar two people are in general attitudes, backgrounds, environments, worldviews, and other traits, the more probable an attraction is possible.
Later on, similarity and other compatibility factors become more important, and the type of love people experience shifts from passionate to companionate. Robert Sternberg has suggested that there are actually three components of love: intimacy, passion, and commitment. According to social exchange theory , relationships are based on rational choice and cost-benefit analysis.
If one partner's costs begin to outweigh their benefits, that person may leave the relationship, especially if there are good alternatives available.
Social Psychology Key Figures
This theory is similar to the minimax principle proposed by mathematicians and economists despite the fact that human relationships are not zero-sum games.
With time, long term relationships tend to become communal rather than simply based on exchange. Careful attention to sampling, research design, and statistical analysis is important; results are published in peer reviewed journals such as the Journal of Experimental Social Psychology , Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin and the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
Social psychology studies also appear in general science journals such as Psychological Science and Science. Experimental methods involve the researcher altering a variable in the environment and measuring the effect on another variable.
An example would be allowing two groups of children to play violent or nonviolent videogames, and then observing their subsequent level of aggression during free-play period. A valid experiment is controlled and uses random assignment. Correlational methods examine the statistical association between two naturally occurring variables.
For example, one could correlate the amount of violent television children watch at home with the number of violent incidents the children participate in at school.
Note that this study would not prove that violent TV causes aggression in children: it is quite possible that aggressive children choose to watch more violent TV. Observational methods are purely descriptive and include naturalistic observation , "contrived" observation, participant observation, and archival analysis. These are less common in social psychology but are sometimes used when first investigating a phenomenon. An example would be to unobtrusively observe children on a playground with a videocamera, perhaps and record the number and types of aggressive actions displayed.
Whenever possible, social psychologists rely on controlled experimentation. Controlled experiments require the manipulation of one or more independent variables in order to examine the effect on a dependent variable. Experiments are useful in social psychology because they are high in internal validity , meaning that they are free from the influence of confounding or extraneous variables, and so are more likely to accurately indicate a causal relationship.
However, the small samples used in controlled experiments are typically low in external validity , or the degree to which the results can be generalized to the larger population. There is usually a trade-off between experimental control internal validity and being able to generalize to the population external validity.
Because it is usually impossible to test everyone, research tends to be conducted on a sample of persons from the wider population.
Social psychologists frequently use survey research when they are interested in results that are high in external validity. Surveys use various forms of random sampling to obtain a sample of respondents that are representative of a population.
This type of research is usually descriptive or correlational because there is no experimental control over variables. However, new statistical methods like structural equation modeling are being used to test for potential causal relationships in this type of data.
David O. Sears , have criticized social psychological research for relying too heavily on studies conducted on university undergraduates in academic settings. Results need to be used to evaluate the hypothesis of the research that is done. These results should either confirm or reject the original hypothesis that was predicted. There are two different types of testing social psychologists use in order to test their results. False positive conclusions, often resulting from the pressure to publish or the author's own confirmation bias , are a hazard in the field.
Later Developments Much of the key research in social psychology developed following World War II, when people became interested in the behavior of individuals when grouped together and in social situations. Key studies were carried out in several areas. Some studies focused on how attitudes are formed, changed by the social context and measured to ascertain whether change has occurred.
Thus the growth years of social psychology occurred during the decades following the s. Bandura Social Learning Theory Bandura introduced the notion that behavior in the social world could be modeled. Children who had seen the adult rewarded were found to be more likely to copy such behavior. We are motivated to reduce this by either changing one of our thoughts, beliefs or attitudes or selectively attending to information which supports one of our beliefs and ignores the other selective exposure hypothesis.
Dissonance occurs when there are difficult choices or decisions, or when people participate in behavior that is contrary to their attitude. Dissonance is thus brought about by effort justification when aiming to reach a modest goal , induced compliance when people are forced to comply contrary to their attitude and free choice when weighing up decisions.
When the boys were asked to allocate points to others which might be converted into rewards who were either part of their own group or the out-group, they displayed a strong in-group preference. That is, they allocated more points on the set task to boys who they believed to be in the same group as themselves. He believed that these were made based on three areas: locus, which could be internal or external; stability, which is whether the cause is stable or changes over time: and controllability.
Content Overview Chapter 1: The Mission and the Method The opening chapter explains what social psychologists do and why students may want to learn about it. It offers a brief introduction to the methods social psychologists use to tell the difference between right and wrong theories.
Chapter 2: Culture and Nature Chapter 2 sets up the big picture. How do we explain people? Departing from the old and tired battle of nature against nurture, this book follows a newly emerging understanding: nature and culture worked together, such that nature designed the human being to be capable of culture.
This chapter then sets up many of the integrative themes that will run through the book to help make sense of the many facts and findings that will be covered. Content Overview xxiii Chapter 3: The Self The human self is a complex and marvelous participant in the social world. This chapter provides a coherent understanding of the human self that is based on both classic and recent research in social psychology.
This chapter covers key social psychology topics of choice, decision-making, self-regulation, and the psychology of action. The remarkable recent progress in this work lends extra excitement to this material.
Chapter 5: Social Cognition Social cognition revolutionized social psychology in the s.
Now it has settled into a core basis for understanding many spheres of social life. Cognition is vital to cultural animals, because cultures operate on the basis of information. This is a showcase for many of the great achievements of social psychology. Chapter 6: Emotion and Affect Studying emotion has proven much harder than studying cognition, and so Chapter 6 cannot compare with Chapter 5 in being able to point to a solid body of accepted knowledge.
Chapter 7: Attitudes, Beliefs, and Consistency The study of attitudes has a long and distinguished history in social psychology. This chapter brings together the influential early, classic studies with the latest advances.
Many textbooks have a chapter on helping. We cover helping in this chapter, but the broad focus is on all prosocial behavior.
The integrative focus helps resolve some long-running debates, such as whether helping is genuinely altruistic and prosocial or merely egoistic and selfish. We also break with the Milgram tradition of depicting obedience and conformity as bad, because culture and thus human social life would collapse without them.
Chapter 9: Aggression and Antisocial Behavior Just as Chapter 8 replaced the traditional, narrow focus on helping with a broader focus on prosocial behavior, this chapter replaces the traditional focus on aggression with a broader treatment of antisocial behavior. Aggression is treated here as a holdover from the social animal stage—which is why cultures mainly struggle to reduce and prevent aggression, favoring nonviolent means of resolving conflicts.
Other antisocial behaviors covered include cheating, stealing, and littering. Chapter Attraction and Exclusion This chapter combines two very different but complementary sets of findings. The study of interpersonal attraction has a long history and, despite the occasional new finding, is a fairly well-established body of knowledge. The study of interpersonal rejection is far more recent but has become a thriving, fast-moving area. Together they constitute the two sides of the coin of people trying to connect with each other.
The study of close, intimate relationships blossomed in the s from a small, underappreciated corner into a profound and exciting enterprise that changed the field. This chapter covers this work, much of it quite recent.
It emphasizes romantic and sexual relationships, showcasing what social psychology has contributed to understanding of these grand, perennial human dramas. Human romance and sex are eternal problems that reveal our evolutionary background but also highlight the many striking ways in which humans are unique. Chapter Prejudice and Intergroup Relations Prejudice occurs all over the world, often contributing to violence and oppression and other forms of misery.
This chapter examines the many forms and faces of prejudice, ranging from the standard topics of racism and sexism to the less remarked prejudices against obese people, Arabs and Muslims, and homosexuals. Special emphasis is given to the emerging and uplifting work on how people overcome prejudice. Chapter Social Influence and Persuasion Social influence and attempted persuasion are deeply woven into the fabric of human social life, and indeed it is the rare social interaction that has absolutely none.
As information-using cultural animals, humans often find themselves wanting to influence others or being the targets of influence. This chapter covers how people exert that influence, why they do,—and how sometimes people manage to resist influence. Chapter Groups All over the world, human beings live in small groups.
This chapter takes a fresh and exciting look at the social psychology of groups. The first part addresses one often-overlooked but basic question, namely why are some groups more and others less than the sum of their parts?
Classic material on group processes is mixed with new and exciting research. On nearly every page of this limited quantity instructor edition, instructors will find annotations— annotations per chapter. The technology tips direct instructors to specific websites.
Jennifer S. Feenstra, Northwestern College.
Social Psychology Featured Publications
Statements that clarify what a student should know, understand or be able to do after mastering the chapter content. Chapter outline. Very detailed review of the chapter. Key terms list. Ideas for instruction.
At least three of the elements below for each major section. Substantial prompts that provide helpful ways to address topics in text, cover topics tangential to what is in text, or provide alternative examples to what are presented in the text. Organized by major section. Substantial prompts for in-class activities. Short and longer term assignments. Substantial prompts for projects that students can do on their own as out-of-class assignments, or short-term projects.
Overview of entire supplements package. Sample syllabi. Ideas for semester-long projects that include detailed instructions. Resource Integration Guide. Print Test Bank and ExamView.
Feature boxes and student CD are represented in questions. Preview Edition Test Bank. Nicole L. Mead, Florida State University. For each chapter of the text, the preview edition test bank includes 25 multiple choice questions. This expansive DVD-ROM includes classic video footage as well as exciting new social psychology video clips exclusive to this text.
Social Psychology and Human Nature, 8th Edition
JoinIn on TurningPoint. Traci Y. Craig, University of Idaho. Interactive classroom response software based on the PowerPoint platform on CD with text-specific content. High-interest video clips of classic and contemporary social psychology research.
Multiple-choice pre- and post-tests that generate study plans for students. Student review of concepts is enhanced through interactive media modules.Fred W. The nature versus nurture debate involves the extent to which particular aspects of behavior are a product of either inherited i.
Estimates of genetic influence are called heritability. In addition to evolutionary models that suggest evolution occurs across large spans of time, recent research has demonstrated that some evolutionary shifts can be fast and dramatic. This is not a book about evolution, nor is it a book about cultural differences. We recommend that instructors assign this chapter early in the semester.
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