The technical content of IEC and CISPR publications is kept under constant . International Standard CISPR 25 has been prepared by CISPR. PDF | This paper compiles similarities and differences among Automotive EMC Based on this introduction, CISPR 25 and the ISO are analyzed since. CISPR Edition INTERNATIONAL. STANDARD. NORME. INTERNATIONALE. Vehicles, boats and internal combustion engines – Radio.
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off of the automotive-battery voltage. The design guide includes EMI and EMC radiation and pulse tests conducted using CISPR 25 and ISO standards. This design helps pass CISPR 25 Class-5 conduct design passes CISPR 25 Class-5 conducted emissions and radiated emissions without a. this introduction, the CISPR 25 and the ISO automotive EMC standards are analysed since they are the basis for most other standards. The anechoic.
Furthermore, since this is a shielded environment, most of the tests defined in standards requiring a shielded room can be performed inside the chamber described in the present section. For low frequencies, an active rod monopole antenna is preferred. At frequencies between 30 MHz and MHz, a typical biconical antenna is the recommended antenna.
The next revision of the standard will contain an annex Annex J which provides methods to validate the performance of an ALSE used for component level radiated emission tests.
Currently, two methods one method based upon reference measurements and another method based upon modelling are being proposed for the ALSE validation tests. The user can select either method to evaluate the performance of the chamber as the work done by the committee has shown that either method provides similar results.
As mentioned at the beginning of the article, CISPR 25 also covers the measurement of emissions received by a vehicle antenna for a whole vehicle setup. The committee found that special testing and limits are required for the testing of these electric driven vehicles and their components. These vehicles represent a special case since there are high currents and voltages involved not only in normal operation but also during charging cycles.
There will be more detailed information on the measurement setups to be used for EV and HEV measurements under different connection and charging scenarios. The testing adds new conditions for when the vehicle is not being driven, but connected to the mains or a charging station.
This standard, like many automotive, military and aerospace standards, calls for moderately high fields to be generated.
At frequencies below MHz, antennas get physically larger and also less efficient. For frequencies below MHz, the standard recommends the methods stated in parts 4, 3, and 5 of the ISO standard.
Those sections describe the bulk current injection, TEM and stripline test methods. These other methods are far more efficient and economical to test for immunity to high fields. The standard recommends that these tests are performed in a shielded room. As is common with most immunity measurements, the intent of the test is to produce RF field levels which can be disruptive or damaging to the EUT; the shielded room removes the risk of unintended disruption to other sensitive devices or equipment outside of the test region.
In the US, as in most other countries, there are limits on the radiation of energy without licenses, at frequencies that could affect licensed broadcasts. These tests are conducted at frequencies above MHz and as discussed previously, the chance of resonant modes being developed inside the shield room is increased, so to reduce measurement errors the use of absorber is required.
The chamber is treated such that the reflectivity in the area of the EUT is dB. Antenna selection is in keeping with the need to generate the required field levels in the most effective and efficient manner given the cost of amplifiers.
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It is recommended that a dual ridge horn antenna be used for the MHz to 2 GHz range. Above that, octave horns and standard gain horns with high gain are the preferred antenna choice. To conclude this article, we shall talk a bit about the antennas used for automotive EMC testing.
Recently it has become important to understand the radiation characteristics of these antennas. For the E plane, the beamwidth ranges between 40 and 90 degrees. On the measured data we can see the effects of the stem and balun holder on the pattern.
The stem is oriented to the degree mark. We can see how on the H plane the balun holder reduces by 2 to 3 dB the intensity of the radiation. The beamwidth of the measured data and the computed data tracks each other nicely. There are clearly some differences between the measured data and the computed results.
Close examination reveals that the error is under 3 dB.
There are several sources of error in the measurement. This is especially the case for the center of the frequency band that the antenna covers.
From about to MHz the antenna being measured exhibits a HPBW ranging from to about 60 degrees for both planes. DRH antennas are the antenna of choice for higher frequencies. This family of antennas have been described numerous times in literature.
Their radiation pattern has been described starting with . Reference  described issues with the radiation pattern of these antennas at frequencies above 12 GHz for models operating in the 1 to 18 GHz range. References  and  introduced a new design for the 1 to 18 GHz range that has a better behaved pattern where the main beam does not split into multiple beams.
The data on the left shows a better behaved pattern without the narrow beams and the split main lobe of the pattern from the antenna on the right.
In references [9, 10] several improvements were made to the radiation patterns of DRH antennas operating in the MHz to 2 GHz range. These are the horns recommended by the authors for ISO These modifications corrected the nulls in the middle on the main beam.
It is important to keep in mind that the data shown for the patterns is free space and far field data, and while it is true that it provides an idea of the antenna coverage, it can be misleading once we are in the presence of conductive benches. An antenna is placed 1 m away from the bench that is grounded.
While the cable harness will be covered by the antenna, the EUT will barely be in the illumination. This happens at all frequencies and it is related to the boundary conditions that are part of the electromagnetic phenomena. Within these we have witnessed the development of model variants with higher gain, customized bandwidths for radar pulse testing, for example , extended bandwidths and higher power handling, all in an effort to improve the efficiency of the measurement setup with reduced antenna changes and reduced amplifier power.
This trend is continuing and we have already started seeing the emergence of the next generation of immunity antennas. The DRH antenna remains an attractive antenna for automotive EMC testing largely due to its wide operating bandwidth, stable radiating characteristics and small size .
However, the lower gain at its lower frequency end drives the need for high amplifier input power, which is sometimes impractical to achieve the required high field strength as required by ISO In addition to achieving higher field levels for many immunity tests, it is also critical that the field uniformity FU requirements are satisfied also required by ISO To solve this problem, horn antennas with lenses have become increasingly popular for automotive EMC testing applications.
With dielectric lenses having properties such as low loss and wide operational frequency range, ridged horn antennas have been able to meet both field strength and FU requirements for automotive EMC testing in the 1 — 5 GHz frequency range. A ridged horn antenna with lens Its lightweight meta-material lens increases the gain of the horn at 1 m distance by 9 dBi. This characteristic makes the antenna ideal for automotive component immunity testing.
Such high gain antennas help to meet the narrow band high field strength requirement with less input power for automotive immunity testing. As described previously, a compliant CISPR 25 chamber with a 2m long ground plane bench for component testing can be as small as 6.
For full vehicle testing however, a larger chamber is needed depending on vehicle size, test range length and testing scope. The interior dimensions of this 10 meter chamber are approximately Absorber coverage was provided on all wall and ceiling surfaces see photo below, results shown in Table 4. The reader has been introduced to the two main standards for automotive vehicles and components with an overview of the revision status of these and several related standards produced by CISPR and ISO.
In this article, we concentrated on designing a chamber to meet the requirements of CISPR 25 and showed that the same chamber is usable for ISO Finally, we have shown some radiation patterns of the typical antennas recommended by the standards, and the performance improvements for a ridged horn fitted with a lens, and benefits in reducing the power demand. The various patterns will give the user an idea of the illumination area that the antennas cover when used, and how the presence of the bench can have a dramatic effect on the radiation pattern and the coverage of the antennas.
This is an clearly an aberration caused by the setup used for these standards and not of the antennas being used, so as with most measurements, caution is recommended in the selection of antennas, setup and validation steps taken to verify that the intended fields are present over the entire area of the EUT accounting for any distortions or resonances that may be present.
The chamber installation example presented in closing highlights the notion that new installations where possible, should take advantage of the best available technology and latest revisions of the relevant standards, as is shown with the use of the proposed CISPR 25 4 th Edition chamber validation method.
The authors would like to thank Mr. Drawing and Drafting. Telecommunications Standards.
AWS D1. Structural Welding. The Store A2LA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Co. Audio Engineering Society AF: American Industrial Hygiene Assn. Artech House ASA: B11 Standards Inc. Builders Hardware Manufacturers Association, Inc. Codes and Standards Training, Inc.
Chlorine Institute CIE: Clarion, Inc. Construction Specifications Institute, Inc. Product Binders DBS: DEStech Publications, Inc. Dunedin Academic Press Ltd. Energy Institute EIA: Elevator World Inc. Emergo Group, Inc.
Deutsche Bundespost Telekom GA: Gypsum Association GAL: Grayboy Associates GSA: InfoComm International IP: Industrial Press, Inc. IT Governance Ltd. Key Products, Inc. Korean Standards Association LC: Maag Gear Company, Ltd. Meta Solutions MHI: Packt Publishing, Inc. Petroconsultants, Inc. Plasa PMI: Prentice Hall PTI: Pressure Vessel Handbook RA: Radiocommunications Agency RAC: Robert S. Means, Inc.
RTCA, Inc. CISPR Vehicles, boats and internal combustion engines New Developments in. Which Standard The IEC series, composed of. Bad repeatability GS Electromagnetic Compatibility EMC. Electric, electronic, assemblies IEC : Testing and measurement techniques - Surge immunity test.Part 3: Note 3: Petroconsultants, Inc.
The stem is oriented to the degree mark. Clarion, Inc. The IEC standards on Electromagnetic compatibility Today most. Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. If the radio mounted in the vehicle, boat or other device does not perform reliably, then consumer satisfaction and ultimately product sales could suffer. For frequencies below MHz, the standard recommends the methods stated in parts 4, 3, and 5 of the ISO standard.
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